• 2020

    Kates SL, Owen JR, Beck CA, Xie C, Muthukrishnan G, Daiss JL, Schwarz EM (2020) Lack of Humoral Immunity Against Glucosaminidase Is Associated with Postoperative Complications in Staphylococcus aureus Osteomyelitis. The Journal of Bone and Joint Surgery: November 4, 2020 - Volume 102 - Issue 21 - p 1842-1848. doi: 10.2106/JBJS.20.00029

    Kates SL, Hurni S, Chen MS (2020) Development and challenges in setting up an international bone infection registry. Arch Orthop Trauma Surg. 2020 Jun;140(6):741-749. doi: 10.1007/s00402-019-03303-7. Epub 2019 Nov 7.

  • 2019

    Masters EA, Salminen AT, Begolo S, Luke EN, Barrett SC, Overby CT, Gill AL, de Mesy Bentley KL, Awad HA, Gill SR, Schwarz EM, McGrath JL (2019) An in vitro platform for elucidating the molecular genetics of S. aureus invasion of the osteocyte lacuno-canalicular network during chronic osteomyelitis. Nanomedicine 21: 102039. DOI: 10.1016/j.nano.2019.102039.

    Masters EA, Trombetta RP, de Mesy Bentley KL, Boyce BF, Gill AL, Gill SR, Nishitani K, Ishikawa M, Morita Y, Ito H, Bello-Irizarry SL, Ninomiya M, Brodell JD, Lee CC, Hao SP, Oh I, Xie C, Awad HA, Daiss JL, Owen JR, Kates SL, Schwarz EM, Muthukrishnan G (2019) Evolving concepts in bone infection: redefining “biofilm”, “acute vs. chronic osteomyelitis”, “the immune proteome” and “local antibiotic therapy”. Bone Research 7: 20.

    MacDonald A, Brodell JD Jr, Daiss JL, Schwarz EM, Oh I (2019) Evidence of differential microbiomes in healing versus non-healing diabetic foot ulcers prior to and following foot salvage therapy. J Orthop Res 37: 1596-1603.

    Moriarty TF, Harris LG, Mooney RA, Riool M, Zaat SAJ, Wenke JC, Moter A, Richards RG, Schaer TP, Alt V, Montali A, Liu J, Busscher HJ, Grainger DW, Zeiter S (2019) Recommendations for design and conduct of preclinical in vivo studies of orthopedic device-related infection. J Orthop Res 37: 271-287.

    Trombetta RP, Ninomiya MJ, El-Atawneh IM, Knapp EK, de Mesy Bentley KL, Dunman PM, Schwarz EM, Kates SL, Awad HA (2019) Calcium phosphate spacers for the local delivery of sitafloxacin and rifampin to treat orthopedic infections: efficacy and proof of concept in a mouse model of single-stage revision of device-associated osteomyelitis. Pharmaceutics 11. pii: E94. DOI: 10.3390/pharmaceutics11020094.

  • 2018

    Childs S, McVicker Z, Trombetta R, Awad H, Elfar J, Giordano B (2018) Patient-specific 3-dimensional modeling and its use for preoperative counseling of patients undergoing hip arthroscopy. Orthop J Sports Med 6: 2325967118794645. DOI: 10.1177/2325967118794645.

    de Mesy Bentley KL, MacDonald A, Schwarz EM, Oh I (2018) Chronic osteomyelitis with Staphylococcus aureus deformation in submicron canaliculi of osteocytes: a case report. JBJS Case Connect 8: e8. DOI: 10.2106/JBJS.CC.17.00154.

    Farnsworth CW, Schott EM, Benvie A, Kates SL, Schwarz EM, Gill SR, Zuscik MJ, Mooney RA (2018) Exacerbated S. aureus foot infections in obese/diabetic mice are associated with impaired germinal center reactions, Ig class-switching, and humoral immunity. J Immunol 201: 560-572.

    Farnsworth CW, Schott EM, Benvie AM, Zukoski J, Kates SL, Schwarz EM, Gill SR, Zuscik MJ, Mooney RA (2018) Obesity/type 2 diabetes increases inflammation, periosteal reactive bone formation, and osteolysis during Staphylococcus aureus implant-associated bone infection. J Orthop Res 36: 1614-1623.

    Oh I, Muthukrishnan G, Ninomiya MJ, Brodell JD, Jr., Smith BL, Lee CL, Gill SR, Beck CA, Schwarz EM, Daiss JL (2018) Tracking anti-Staphylococcus aureus antibodies produced in vivo and ex vivo during foot salvage therapy for diabetic foot infections reveals prognostic insights and evidence of diversified humoral immunity. Infect Immun 86. DOI: 10.1128/IAI.00629-18.

    Ricciardi BF, Muthukrishnan G, Masters E, Ninomiya M, Lee CC, Schwarz EM (2018) Staphylococcus aureus evasion of host immunity in the setting of prosthetic joint infection: biofilm and beyond. Curr Rev Musculoskelet Med 11: 389-400.

    Trombetta RP, Dunman PM, Schwarz EM, Kates SL, Awad HA (2018) A high-throughput screening approach to repurpose FDA-approved drugs for bactericidal applications against Staphylococcus aureus small-colony variants. mSphere 3. pii: e00422. DOI: 10.1128/mSphere.00422-18.

    Vella JB, Trombetta RP, Hoffman MD, Inzana J, Awad H, Benoit DSW (2018) Three dimensional printed calcium phosphate and poly(caprolactone) composites with improved mechanical properties and preserved microstructure. J Biomed Mater Res A 106: 663-672.

    Yokogawa N, Ishikawa M, Nishitani K, Beck CA, Tsuchiya H, Mesfin A, Kates SL, Daiss JL, Xie C, Schwarz EM (2018) Immunotherapy synergizes with debridement and antibiotic therapy in a murine 1-stage exchange model of MRSA implant-associated osteomyelitis. J Orthop Res 36: 1590-1598.

  • 2017

    de Mesy Bentley KL, Trombetta R, Nishitani K, Bello-Irizarry SN, Ninomiya M, Zhang L, Chung HL, McGrath JL, Daiss JL, Awad HA, Kates SL, Schwarz EM (2017) Evidence of Staphylococcus aureus deformation, proliferation, and migration in canaliculi of live cortical bone in murine models of osteomyelitis. J Bone Miner Res 32: 985-990.

    Farnsworth CW, Schott EM, Jensen SE, Zukoski J, Benvie A, Refaai MA, Kates SL, Schwarz EM, Zuscik MJ, Gill SR, Mooney RA (2017) Adaptive upregulation of Clumping factor A (ClfA) by S. aureus in the obese, type 2 diabetic host mediates increased virulence. Infect Immun 85: e01005-01016. DOI: 10.1128/IAI.01005-16.

    Moriarty TF, Kuehl R, Coenye T, Metsemakers WJ, Morgenstern M, Schwarz EM, Riool M, Zaat SAJ, Khana N, Kates SL, Richards RG (2017) Orthopaedic device-related infection: current and future interventions for improved prevention and treatment. EFORT Open Rev 1: 89-99.

    Moriarty TF, Schmid T, Post V, Samara E, Kates S, Schwarz EM, Zeiter S, Richards RG (2017) A large animal model for a failed two-stage revision of intramedullary nail-related infection by methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus. Eur Cell Mater 34: 83-98.

    Peng J, Ren Y, He W, Li Z, Yang J, Liu Y, Zheng Z, Kates SL, Schwarz EM, Xie C, Xu Y (2017) Epidemiological, clinical and microbiological characteristics of patients with post-traumatic osteomyelitis of limb fractures in southwest china: a hospital-based study. J Bone Jt Infect 2: 149-153.

    Trombetta RP, Inzana JA, Schwarz EM, Kates SL, Awad HA (2017) 3D printing of calcium phosphate ceramics for bone tissue engineering and drug delivery. Ann Biomed Eng 45: 23-44.

  • 2016

    Inzana JA, Schwarz EM, Kates SL, Awad HA (2016) Biomaterials approaches to treating implant-associated osteomyelitis. Biomaterials 81: 58-71.

    Morgenstern M, Erichsen C, Hackl S, Post V, Moriarty F, Hungerer S, Richards RG, Kates SL (2016a) Antibiotic resistance of commensal Staphylococcus aureus and coagulase negative staphylococci in an international cohort of surgeons: a prospective point-prevalence study. PLoS One 11: e0148437. DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0148437.

    Morgenstern M, Erichsen C, von Rüden M, Militz M, Kates SL, Moriarty TF, Hungerer S (2016b) Staphylococcal orthopaedic device-related infections in older patients. Injury 47: 1427-1434.

    Moriarty TF, Kuehl R, Coenye T, Metsemakers WJ, Morgenstern M, Schwarz EM, AJ Zaat S, Riool M, Khana K, Kates SL, Richards RG (2016) Orthopaedic device related infection: current and future interventions for improved prevention and treatment. EFORT Open Rev 1: 89-99.

    Nishitani K, Bello-Irizarry SN, de Mesy Bentley K, Daiss JL, Schwarz EM (2016) The role of the immune system and bone cells in acute and chronic osteomyelitis. Osteoimmunology 2nd Ed, Chapter 16. Pp: 283-295.

  • 2015

    Farnsworth CW, Shehatou C, Maynard R, Nishitani K, Kates S, Daiss J, Schwarz E, Zuscik M, Mooney R (2015) A humoral immune defect distinguishes S. aureus infections in obesity and type 2 diabetes from type 1 diabetes. Infect Immun 83: 2264-2274.

    Inzana JA, Trombetta RP, Schwarz EM, Kates SL, Awad HA (2015) 3D printed bioceramics for dual delivery of antibiotics to treat implant-associated bone infection. Eur Cell Mater 30: 232-247.

    Nishitani K, Beck CA, Rosenberg AF, Kates SL, Schwarz EM, Daiss JL (2015) A diagnostic serum antibody test for patients with Staphylococcus aureus osteomyelitis. Clin Orthop Relat Res 473: 2735-2749.

    Nishitani K, Sutipornpalangkul W, de Mesy Bentley KL, Varrone JJ, Bello-Irizarry SN, Ito H, Matsuda S, Kates SL, Daiss JL, Schwarz EM (2015) Quantifying the natural history of biofilm formation in vivo during the establishment of chronic implant-associated Staphylococcus aureus osteomyelitis in mice to identify critical pathogen and host factors. J Orthop Res 33: 1311-1319.

  • 2014

    Aggarwal VK, Tischler EH, Lautenbach C, Williams GR Jr, Abboud JA, Altena M, Bradbury T, Calhoun J, Dennis D, Del Gaizo DJ, Font-Vizcarra L, Huotari K, Kates S, Koo KH, Mabry TM, Moucha CS, Palacio JC, Peel TN, Poolman RW, Robb WJ 3rd, Salvagno R, Seyler T, Skaliczki G, Vasarhelyi EM, Watters WC (2014a) Mitigation and education. J Orthop Res 32 Suppl 1: S16-25.

    Aggarwal VK, Tischler EH, Lautenbach C, Williams GR Jr, Abboud JA, Altena M, Bradbury TL, Calhoun JH, Dennis DA, Del Gaizo DJ, Font-Vizcarra L, Huotari K, Kates SL, Koo KH, Mabry TM, Moucha CS1, Palacio JC, Peel TN, Poolman RW, Robb WJ 3rd, Salvagno R, Seyler T, Skaliczki G, Vasarhelyi EM, Watters WC 3rd (2014b) Mitigation and education. J Arthroplasty 29:19-25.

    Inzana JA, Olvera D, Fuller SM, Kelly JP, Graeve OA, Schwarz EM, Kates SL, Awad HA (2014) 3D printing of composite calcium phosphate and collagen scaffolds for bone regeneration. Biomaterials 35: 4026-4034.

    Inzana JA, Schwarz EM, Kates SL, Awad HA (2014) A novel murine model of established staphylococcal bone infection in the presence of a fracture fixation plate to study therapies utilizing antibiotic-laden spacers after revision surgery. Bone 72: 128-136.

    Reizner W, Hunter JG, O'Malley NT, Southgate RD, Schwarz EM, Kates SL (2014) A systematic review of animal models for Staphylococcus aureus osteomyelitis. Eur Cell Mater 27:196-212.

    Schwarz EM, Kates SL, Alt V (2014) The 1st international consensus meeting on periprosthetic joint infection. J Orthop Res 32 Suppl 1: S1. DOI: 10.1002/jor.22542.

    Varrone JJ, de Mesy Bentley KL, Bello-Irizarry SN, Nishitani K, Mack S, Hunter JG, Kates SL, Daiss JL, Schwarz EM (2014) Passive immunization with anti-glucosaminidase monoclonal antibodies protects mice from implant-associated osteomyelitis by mediating opsonophagocytosis of Staphylococcus aureus megaclusters. J Orthop Res 32: 1389-1396.

  • 2013

    Gedbjerg N, Larosa R, Hunter JG, Varrone JJ, Kates SL, Schwarz EM, Daiss JL (2013) Anti-glucosaminidase IgG in sera as a biomarker of host immunity against Staphylococcus aureus in orthopaedic surgery patients. J Bone Joint Surg Am 95: e1711-1719.

    Hunter JG, Daiss JL, Kates SL, Schwarz EM (2013) Animal models for implant-associated osteomyelitis. Animal models for the study of human disease. Elsevier Inc.. pp: 419-433.

The pillars of the CPP Bone Infection


Host-pathogen interaction

Learn about how S. aureus adapts to the environment of an implant-associated infection.



Read about the development of new tools to assess implant-associated infections.



Explore how the CPP Bone Infection is running its surgical site prevention program.


Prophylaxis and treatment

Learn about treatment and prevention of implant-associated infections.


Explore the educational program of the CPP Bone Infection.



Read about the first international bone infection registry.

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